APA Style Sheet for Research Papers

Based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Ed.)

Belize - March 2008

Double space
all text from page one (1) of Chapter One to the end of your References section.

All citations & references must have an author.

Citations in the Text-

APA Style utilizes internal citations (Read Chapter Six, pp. 169-192).  

Three ways to cite a quote:

Use a block quote for direct quotes longer than 40 words or 3 lines.

Two ways to cite a paraphrase:

Dr. Bob says-

Good web sites for more information on APA style-

How to create a Reference List & reference a source (6th Ed.)-

    The APA style is different in that it combines a traditional bibliography and endnotes into one section called References (see Ch. Seven).  You will not usually have a bibliography in your project.  A reference section is double spaced, in alphabetical order (after last page of your text & before appendices) with a hanging indent, the opposite of normal paragraphs & not done using the Tab key. 

Since this is a Web page, the examples below do not have a hanging indent:


Bock, K. (1990). Structure in language: Creating form in talk. American Psychologist, 45, 1221-1236.

Carroll, J.B. (ed.). (1956). Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Chambliss, W. (1973). The saints and the roughnecks. In J.M. Henslin (Ed.), Down to earth sociology (pp.180-194). New York: The Free Press/Macmillan.

Maggio, R. (1988). The nonsexist word finder: A dictionary of gender-free usage. Boston: Beacon Press.

Mihail, T. (1992). Integrating students with special needs: A civil rights movement. (3rd. ed.) Hammond, IN: Purdue University Calumet.

Rickabaugh, K. (Producer) & Urbisci, R. (Director). (1990). George Carlin: Doin' It Again. [Film]. New Brunswick, NJ: Cablestuff Productions.

Thio, A. (1989). Sociology: An introduction. (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (1990). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York: Harper-Collins.

For journal articles, always include the journal issue number (if available) along with the volume number, regardless of whether the journal is paginated separately by issue or continuously by volume.