Dr. Bob Pettapiece
Fourth Grade Unit
Our group decided to plan our unit on Michigan’s Upper Peninsula for two reasons. First, the Upper Peninsula is a region that is overflowing with great natural beauty, technical engineering and small town charm. We wanted to capture and teach our fourth graders about this wonderful area in Michigan. Secondly, the Upper Peninsula is commonly overlooked, or passed over quickly when units are taught on the state of Michigan. We believe that this is a serious oversight and we wanted to help teachers and students acknowledge the magnificence of the Upper Peninsula.
We assume the fourth graders know that Michigan has an Upper Peninsula. Skills we assume the students have are:
* How to summarize reading
* Writing (in paragraph form and letter form)
* Measuring abilities
We have included the Michigan Framework for Social Studies Education
Content Standards as the rationale for the lesson plans in this unit.
The disciplines we integrated into our unit plan are as follows:
Core Democratic Value:
This controversy includes two values: promotes the general public as
well as the general good. The locks would be positive for both values.
The locks are now helping people transport goods everyday.
Edmund Fitzgerald Bulletin Board
This bulletin board has two purposes. First, it will display the actors and ships involved in the incident. Secondly, it will track the major events in chronological order from the Edmund Fitzgerald’s launching in River Rouge, Michigan on June 7, 1958, to its sinking in Whitefish Bay on November 10, 1975.
The people involved in the incident includes the 29 crewmembers of the Edmund Fitzgerald along with the captain of the "Fitz", Captain Eric McSorley. Also included in the list of players are the crew of the Arthur M. Anderson, and her captain, Captain Bernie Cooper. The Arthur M. Anderson was the vessel that trailed eight to ten miles behind the Edmund Fitzgerald and aided in the "Fitz’s" navigation when her radar failed. She was the last to communicate with Captain McSorley. Fifteen minutes later, the Edmund Fitzgerald disappeared from the Anderson’s scopes.
Also included in the bulletin board will be the Whitefish Point
and the Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum. Ironically, the electricity at
lighthouse had gone out briefly during the evening of November 10,
so it was unable to provide helpful navigation for the Edmund
Use of the Five Senses
Read-aloud books (Days 6, 9, 12)
Mining For Chocolate (Day 1)
Mining For Chocolate (Day 1)
Shipwrecks (Day 4)
Read-aloud books (Day 6, 9,12)
Social Studies Content Area
Michigan Standards Used:
- Sequence chronologically the following eras of American History and key events…
- Understand narratives about major eras of American and world
- Describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of places, cultures, and
- Describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems,
resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, …
- Describe compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of economic activities,
trade, political activities, migration, information flow, and the…
- Describe and compare characteristics of ecosystems, states, regions, countries, major
world regions, and patterns…
- Explain the meaning and origin of the ideas, including the core
- Describe and demonstrate how the economic forces of scarcity and choice affect the
management of personal financial resources…
- Describe how trade generates economic development and
- Acquire information from books, maps, newspapers, data sheets, and other sources,
organize and present information in maps, graphics…
Destination: Whitefish Point Light and the Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum
Address: 110 Whitefish Point Road ? Paradise ? MI- 49768
Contact Person: Tammy Henning
Phone Number: 1- (800) 635-1742
Hours/Days: May 15th ? October 15th ? 10AM-6PM ? Monday-Saturday
Cost: $6.00 adult - $4.00 children
Food: None inside the museum, but there is a hot dog stand outside.
Length of Tour: 1 * hrs
Comments: Reservations are required. The tour also includes a trip to the lighthouse,
Boardwalk, bird observatory, gift shop, and theater.
Connection to Social Studies: The museum displays many
artifacts, such as, the actual bell from the shipwreck of the S.S.
Dossin Great Lakes Museum
Location: Strand Drive, Belle Isle, Detroit, Michigan 48207
Contact Person: Walter Weaker
Phone Number: (313) 852-4051
Hours/Days: Wednesday - Saturday / 10 am till 5 pm
Admission: $2.00 adults, children free
Tour length: 60 minutes
Mining Earth’s natural resources.
mining process through extracting chocolate chips out of a cookie.
Objective: Students will learn about what a spring is This will be done by using the Internet and pictures of Kitch ? iti ? kipi.
Objective: Students will look at and examine the Tahquamenon Falls ? where the water originated from and where it flows to.
Students will learn about the shipwreck
S.S. Edmund Fitzgerald and identify some of the items that were aboard
Objective: Students will complete their letter from the previous lesson about their voyage.
Objective: Students will compose an acrostic poem using the word "lighthouse".
Students will learn facts about the
while making a circuit board.
Students will learn about where copper comes from and how it gets to be in the form that we currently use. They will also discuss the steps included in the process.
*The areas in red represent the five detailed lesson plans for the unit!
Students will read a narrative about logging and make
other social studies issues.
The students will be able to read pamphlets and create a postcard to send to someone as if they had visited this place.
The students will learn about logging by doing the related
The students will know what a lock is,
works, and understand the good the locks brought the people of Michigan.
The students will learn how to make a map along with a map key. They will show this by making a geography map of the Upper Peninsula.
Objective: Students will read facts about the Upper Peninsula and unscramble the facts to put them in order to create a time line.
Objective: Students will work together as a group to find information about a specific topic, and then write an essay.
Students will select different cities
off of the
map of the Upper Peninsula and calculate the distances from one city to
*The areas in red represent the five
lesson plans for the unit!
UPPER PENNINSULA UNIT VOCABULARY TERMS
built into a river or a canal and used to raise a ship from one water level to another.
Lake Superior and Lake Huron) that lift ships and freighters
body of water to the other.
northern part of the Upper Peninsula.
Superior in 1975.
16.) Mining: the process of digging into the ground to obtain minerals.
17.) Logging: the process of cutting down trees for lumber.
18.) Industry: human and mechanical manufacturing of goods.
19.) Scarcity: shortness of the supply of a good.
20.) Circuit: sheet of insulating material used in
Mining for Chocolate
The students will learn about mining Earth’s natural resources by imitating the mining process through extracting the chocolate chips out of a chocolate chip cookie.
This is a great way to start off the unit because it motivates the children.
Social Studies and Science
Students will demonstrate predicting, experimenting, observing, and discussing throughout this activity.
Hard chocolate chip cookies (one per student)
The students will be able to explain the mining process both orally and in writing. The students will also share with the class how difficult, or easy the procedure was. What were the difficulties they had in class with their mining operations? The students will also write about this activity in tomorrow’s journal entry.
Big Spring (Kitch ? iti ? kipi)
Discuss what a spring is, how they were formed, and why water continues to flow through them. Place students in groups to search the Internet for about ten minutes for information on springs. When they are finished, join together as a class to review what was found.
Example internet site:
Kitch ? iti ? kipi, Michigan’s largest spring, is located 12 mile west of Manistique in Palms Book State Park. Also known as "The Big Spring," it is two hundred feet across, and forty feet deep. Over 10,000 gallons of water a minute gush from the many fissures in the underlying limestone. The flow continues throughout the year at a constant temperature of 45- degrees.
A self-operated raft allows visitors to guide themselves to points overlooking the fascinating underwater features. Ancient tree trunks, lime-encrusted branches and swimming trout appear suspended in thin air as they slip through crystal clear waters far below. Clouds of sand are kept in constant motion by the gushing waters, creating ever-changing shapes and forms.
First, activate prior knowledge concerning waterfalls. Examine where
students think the water first came from and where it flows to? Next,
the students use the Michigan Waterways, and Tributaries Map (available
from the Department of Natural Resources) to trace the flow of water
and out of Tahquamenon Falls. Were the predictions correct? Where does
the water come from and where does it flow?
The Tahquamenon Falls are two sets of waterfalls. The Upper Falls is
more than 200 feet across and has a 50-foot drop. It is the second
waterfall east of the Mississippi River. The Lower falls are much
The tea-colored water thunders down the Upper Falls in majestic beauty.
Tahquamenon Falls are located in Tahquamenon Falls State Park in
in the central eastern part of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. This state
has a beautiful tourist attractions that feature wildlife, woods, and
Lesson Plan #2 ? Day 4
Students will learn about the shipwreck of the S.S. Edmund Fitzgerald and identify some of the items that were aboard the ship.
This activity will give students an introductory look at the shipwreck of the S.S. Edmund Fitzgerald. Students will compare their own viewpoint about the matter raised with that of another individual (6.1.2).
Big plastic containers each containing: a watch a wheel
Water a boot men’s jewelry
Paper towels a shoe hats
The teacher will say to the class, "Today we are going to learn about the shipwreck of the S.S. Edmund Fitzgerald. We are also going to go to the bottom of Lake Superior to find out what was left over from the ship."
Wrap ? Up:
The teacher will tell the class, "Now that we have seen some items
might be found at the bottom of Lake Superior, what can you tell me
them?" Are they in good shape? Who do you think owned these items? The
class will then discuss what they found. What could be different
the items they found and the actual items on the SS Edmund Fitzgerald?
The students will then take the role of one of the men aboard the
Fitzgerald. They will write a letter about themselves and their voyage.
They will include something about the important item that they brought
with them (the item will be the same thing that the student found in
container). Papers may then be shared with the class.
Some Facts about the SS Edmund Fitzgerald:
SS Edmund Fitzgerald
Students will finish the letter from Day 4. This letter should be
as if they were on the ship, the SS Edmund Fitzgerald.
After reading the book The Ultimate Book of Lighthouses
Samuel Willard Compton and Michael J. Rhein, the students will make
poems using the word lighthouse (final copy will be done on plain
of white paper).
Lesson Plan #3- Day 7
The Mackinac Bridge
Students will learn facts about the Mackinac Bridge while using a circuit.
Strand II Geographic Perspective
Mackinac Bridge Summary Sheet, wire, 6 volt batteries, light bulbs, manila envelopes, aluminum foil, masking tape, writing utensil.
Students will do two other students circuit board tests.
Students should know how to the circuit board works, as well as the answers to their questions.
The Mackinac Bridge- Summary Sheet
Michigan’s Upper and Lower Peninsula’s are about four miles apart in distance from shore to shore. Before the Mackinac Bridge was built, the only way to get from one side to the other side was by boat. In 1923, the Michigan State Legislature established a car-ferry service to help people get to both peninsulas. These ferry boats safely carried over 30 million people and their cars back and forth across the Straits of Mackinac for 34 years. Eventually, the ferry service became so busy, that people began to ponder the idea of building a bridge to connect the peninsulas. Building such a bridge would have cost about $30 million dollars back in 1923, so the idea was dropped. Through the years however, people continued to propose this idea. Traffic through the ferry system finally became so heavy that the State of Michigan began to consider more seriously building a bridge. Finally, after many years of studying this project and many months of trying to finance the project, a deal was set. Dr. David B. Steinman, one of the world’s greatest engineers of the time was hired to oversee the project.
Building of the Mackinac Bridge began on May 7, 1954. This was no easy task because of the many hazards of marine construction over the dangerous, turbulent Straits of Mackinac. The brave workers had nerves of steel as they stood high above the water day in and day out for 3 * years. During construction they used 42,000 miles of wire in the main cables and over one million steel bolts to build the bridge. Sadly, five brave men died as they fell from various parts of the bridge.
Nicknamed, Big Mac, the bridge opened to traffic on November 1, 1957 and is the world’s longest suspension bridge. The final cost to build the bridge was almost $100 million dollars. The bridge is five miles in total length and weighs over one million tons. Thousands of vehicles including cars, trucks and campers cross the bridge every year. There is a one-way toll of $1.50 to cross the bridge. The money is used to pay the Mackinac Bridge Authority Workers and to help paint and keep the bridge in good condition.
Bringing Copper Mines to the Market &
Earnings from Copper Mines in 1924
Upper Peninsula and Logging
Language Arts and Social Studies
Student will read a narrative about logging and make connections to other social studies concepts. They will use the text for fourth grade and apply parts to concepts needed to be grasped for the grade level. Topics such as character analysis, applying knowledge learned, and story mapping.
It is important for students in fourth grade to have an understanding of reading a chapter book and applying knowledge from it to use for application.
Journey Back to Lumberjack Camp (book) By: Janie Lynn Panagopoulos
The students will understand the concept of reading and applying knowledge learned from an informational/fictional book about logging in Michigan.
Loggers not only had to cut the trees, they also had to get the logs
to the sawmills to be cut into lumber. Since logs ate very heavy, this
was no simple task. It was easier to move logs in the winter when they
could be loaded on sleds and pulled along icy roads. In this way the
logs could be moved to riverbanks and floated downstream to sawmills in
the spring when the water was too high. Loggers stamped their own mark
on the ends of logs to keep their logs from getting mixed up with logs
from other camps. Some sample log marks are shown below. One log has
left empty so that you can design your own log mark. You might want to
use your initials or a symbol in your design.
Match the words in Column A with their meanings in
B. Your answers should spell a common logging word.
|Column A||Column B|
|___ 1. Poor logging season||K. turn left|
|___ 2. Good logging season||B. used to carry logs in winter|
|___ 3. Log mark||L. warm winter with little snow|
|___ 4. Logging sleds||M. a brand stamped on logs|
|___ 5. Tote road||J. used to move logs in spring|
|___ 6. Teamsters||U. cold winter with spring rains|
|___ 7. River||E. logging road|
|___ 8. Board foot||R. man who drove a team of horses|
|___ 9. Gee||C. turn right|
|___10. Haw||A. 1 foot long, 1 foot wide, 1 foot thick|
Pamphlets From The Upper Peninsula
Have the children take one pamphlet from the pile that has been
from the Upper Peninsula. Have them read their pamphlet on their own
create a postcard to send to someone as if they had visited the place
Be sure to review what is included in a post card, how to address it,
valuable information about the place they "visited." Have them send it
to another student in the class, and have the other student read it,
then look at the corresponding brochure. The postcards would then keep
on rotating, and continue on until each student has gained information
on many different place in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula.
During the last half of the nineteenth century lumbering was a big business in the Upper Great lakes region. The huge white pines and other trees that grew abundantly in northern Michigan, northwestern Wisconsin, and northeastern Minnesota became the prime resource for an industry that made a tremendous impact upon the economy and history of these states. Logging camps, sawmills, and boomtowns sprang up through the area, while the vast forests quite literally turned into towns and cities in America’s young Midwest.
What’s the Chance of Forest Fire?
When the lumberjacks had finished their work, they left behind the
stumps and branches from the trees that they had cut. When these dried
they were a perfect place for forest fires to start- and they did! In
year 1871 two huge fires, the Peshtigo fire in Wisconsin and the great
Chicago fire, burned over thousands of acres of land and killed more
a thousand people. Today we know more about how to prevent such fires.
Test your knowledge of forest fire prevention by reading the statements
below and placing an I for Increased beside the things
increase the danger of fire and a D for Decreased
the things that decrease the danger of fire.
_____ It is cool and cloudy
_____ Farmers clear their land by burning
_____ Loggers have cut all the trees in a forest leaving only brush & stumps
_____ A storm is moving through with rains and wind, but no lightning.
_____ Campers leave their fire to burn out by itself
_____ Forest lands are damp from a long, heavy rain
_____ There has been no rain for weeks
_____ Lightning is streaking the sky
_____ Loggers cut only part of the forest, leaving many young trees
_____ It is a hot, windy day
_____ Farmers clear away dead brush and stumps with machinery
_____ Someone throws away a cigarette that is still burning
In the Lumberjacks Kitchen
Match the lumberjack’s kitchen terms listed below with the ones we
|_____dinner||1. Kitchen, dinning room|
|_____ long sweetening||2. biscuits|
|_____ grub||3. Eggs|
|_____ sinkers||4. Oven|
|_____ doorknobs||5. Poor cook|
|_____ jerk the hash||6. A pile of pancakes|
|_____ pratties||7. Sugar|
|_____ stack||8. Serve the food|
|_____ belly burgler||9. Doughnuts|
|_____ baker||10. Pancake|
|_____ cackleberries||11. Food|
|_____ black lead||12. Cook’s helper|
|_____ box up the dough||13. Noon meal|
|_____ crumb chaser||14. Knead bread|
|_____ flappers||15. Coffee|
|_____ cookhouse||16. Potatoes|
Lesson Plan #4 ? Day 12
Soo Lock Construction
Soo Lock Construction
Students will know what a lock is, and how a lock works. The students will also be able to understand the good that the locks brought to the people of Michigan.
2-24" long cardboard pieces string
6-1" by 1" boards hole punch
2-12" long cardboard pieces wood glue
1 toy boat
An important part of the Upper Peninsula is the great Soo Locks. Locks lower and raise ships so they can pass through a canal. In the Upper Peninsula ships needed to go through Lake Superior and Lake Huron to ship products. The problem to this is that Lake Superior’s waters are 20 feet higher than lake Huron’s. Before Locks, the people would have to unload from one ship and reload to another, which wasted a lot of time. The Locks were invented in 1855.
1. Assign people four to a group by having them count off.
2. Have the students take their six boards and make 2 U’s by using wood glue, and then
let these dry.
3. Now take the cardboards (24") and punch four holes in each.
4. Now take the other cardboard pieces and punch four holes in each corner.
5. Take string and hang the smaller pieces in between the two sides (two big pieces).
6. Connect two long pieces to the posts using wood glue.
7. Raise and lower your Locks by pulling the string.
8. The students have now created a Lock. Have them put the toy boat on it and try it out.
Now you can see how a lock works. This was a great idea, with these Locks thousands of ships pass through these canals. Industry went up due to this great invention.
Discuss the controversy surrounding the building of the Soo Locks. (See introduction, controversy section.)
Does everyone seem to understand how the locks work and how important they are? Were the students excited to build their projects?
The Mighty Soo: Five Hundred Years at Sault Ste. Marie (book), by Clara Ingram Judson
With the information below make a geography map of the Upper Peninsula. Make your own key; work in groups of two or three maximum.
The students will have to unscramble the facts below and put them in order in a time line. The students can work in groups of two.
Students will count off numbers one through five. The groups will have different subjects that they will need to focus on in the Upper Peninsula. Some examples are lakes, museums, attractions, entertainment, etc. This will be done by drawing out of a hat. The groups will then get brochures that match with their given subject or topic. Each group will find information regarding the specific topic. The students will then write a short persuasive essay to make that subject as interesting as possible for one to want to visit. The students can also use plain sheets of lined paper for drawings if they choose to. Students will then share their information about their topic with the rest of the class.
Lesson Plan #5 ? Day 16
Mapping the Upper Peninsula
Students will select different cities off of the map of the Upper Peninsula and calculate the distances from one city to another.
Benchmark used: Acquire information from books, maps, newspaper, data sheets, and other sources to organize and present information in maps. (Strand 5)
Map of the Upper Peninsula, writing utensils, atlas or access to the internet.
The teacher will say to the class, "Today we are going to look at a map of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. We are also going to figure out the distances between different cities located in the Upper Peninsula."
The teacher will ask the children "How many of you guessed right on your distances? How many guessed wrong? Were you surprised with your findings?" The class will discuss their answers.
The students will write on a sheet of paper how long they think it
take to drive from one of these cities to the other. They will also
a guess of how far they think their home is from Escanaba, MI.
Brill, Marlene Targ. Celebrate The States: Michigan. New York: Marshall Cavendish,
Compton, Samuel Willard, and Rhein, Micheal. The Ultimate Book of Lighthouses,
Houghton Mifflin, 1989
Dunbar, Willis, and May, George. Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State.
Willliam B. Eandmans Publishing Co. 1995
Fradin, Dennis Brindell. From Sea To Shining Sea: Michigan. Chicago: Children’s
Hillstrom, Kevin and Laurie. Adventure Guide to Michigan. Hunter publishing Inc, 1998
Hintz, Martin, Michigan. Children’s Press, 1998
Judson, Clara Ingram. The Mighty Soo. New York: Follett Publishing Company, 1955.
Lewis, Ferris. Michigan: Yesterday and Today. Hillsdale School Supply Publishers,
Mitchell, John and Tom Woodruff. Michigan: An Illustrated History For Children.
Michigan: Suttons Bay Publications, 1987.
Modrzynski, Mike. Hiking Michigan, Falcon Press Publishing Co. Inc, 1996
Osolinski, Stan. Michigan. Portland: Graphic Arts Center Publishing Co., 1977.
Panagopoulous, Janie Lynn, Journey Back to Lumberjack Camp
Sirvaitis, Karen. Michigan. Lerner Publications Co. 1994